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"In creative problem solving, it is frequently more important to look at a problem from different vantage points rather than run with the first solution that pops into your head."  Eugene Raudsepp (Creative Growth Games)
Jootsy Calculus
in which 2 + 2 = 5,
among other things
translated by Razilee Purdue
C19782003 Hierogamous Enterprises
Jootsy calculus is that branch of metamathematics in which calculations are not limited to just one alphanumeric system but allowed to joots, "jump out of the system" in which it began or had been previously "jootsed".
With jootsy calculus, for example, two plus two not only can equal five, but an infinite number of other correct answers, depending on pov ["point of view"] even including infinities. One, in fact, can use any mathematical representation included in the set of Generalized Orthographic Denotations.
"All things are possible with GOD."
One can add two letters to two letters to get a number word in any number of languages, two letters to two letters to get a Roman numeral, two multiplicative factors to get a quotient, use a different base for the
number system than the usual decimal, including "improper" representations using greaterthanbase, half, imaginary or even irrational place holders, modulo arithmetic that notes only remainders.
For example here are a few of the possible answers to what
2 + 2 =
00 (Loglan (ni + ni))
0 (ze + ro)
0.5 (modulos 7/2, 7/4, 7/8)
f/2 (modulos (15 + G(2, 1/2, 5)/2, (15 + G(2, 1/2, 5)/4, (15 + G(2, 1/2, 5)/8)
1 (French [on + ze], German [ei + ns], Yiddish [ey + ns], Italian [on + ce], Japanese [ic + hí , ka + ta], modulos 3, 3/2, Swahili [mo + ja], Russian [od + in, od + na])
1.5 (bases 8/3, 7/2, modulo 5/2)
1.5i (bases (82i)/3, 12.5+2i, 122i)
f (modulo (7 + G(2, 1/2, 5)/2)
2 (French [de + ux], German [zw + ei], Italian [do + ce], Portuguese [do + is])
2.5 (bases 8/5, 7/4)
2i (base 2i/2)
3 (French, Spanish [tr + es], German [dr + ei], Swahili [ta + tu], Yiddish [dr + ay, fir])
3.5 (bases 8/7, 7/6)
4 (bases 4+, Swedish [fy + ra], English [fo + ur], Roman [ij + ij], German [vi + er], Norwegian [fi + re])
4.5 (base 7/8)
5 (English [fi + ve], French [ci + nq], Swahili [ta + no], Swedish [fy + ra], Yiddish [fi + nf])
5.5 (bases 7/10, 1/2)
6 (Spanish [cuatro, se + is], Roman [ij + iv], French [quatre], German [se + is], Italian [si + ta], Norwegian [se + ks], Yiddish [ze + ks]
6.5 (bases 7/12, 1/4)
7 (Italian [quattro], sa + ba, French [se + pt], Portuguese [se + te], Yiddish [zi + bn])
7.5 (bases 1/2, 1/6)
8, Yiddish [ak + ht], French [hu + it], na + ne, Spanish [oc + ho)], German [oc + ht], Italian [ot + to], Latin [quattuor], Portuguese [oi + to], Roman [vi + ij])
8.5 (base 7/16, 1/8)
9 (Japanese [ky + uu], na + oi, Yiddish [na + yn], French [ne + uf], German [ne + un], English [ni + ne], Italian and Portuguese [no + ve], [ti + sa]
9.5 (bases 7/18, 1/10)
10 (base 4, Spanish [di + ez], Swahili [ku + mi], Loglan [ne + ni], Yiddish [ts + en], German [ze + hn])
. . .
imaginaries:
5i/2 (bases (2i  8)/3, 93/8 + 2i, 87/8  2i)
3i (base (4 i)/3)
7i/2 (bases (8  2i)/5, 14 + 2i, 73/6  2i)
4i (base 1  i/4)
. . .
inversions (read upsidedown):
(9  8)(9  8)
9  8 + 9  8
(9  8)(98  88)
91  81 + 91  81)
(9  8)(908  808)
(91  81)(91  81))
. . .
negatives:
10 (base 4)
11 (base 5)
The Babylonians practiced the oldest known jootsy calculus. We still use a modified form for notatinhours, minutes and seconds. It interesting in that it jumped between base 10 and 60 and, unlike ours, had no placeholder such as zero (though they did use symbols for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50), A mathematical expression therefore could have multiple meanings depending upon the values assigned the terms, 2 + 2 = 2AG(2, w, 10)G(2, x, 60) + 2AG(2, y, 10)G(2, z, 60), so that:
2 + 2 = 4, but also  22, 122, 240, 14400, 7202, 7320, 86400, 432002, 432120, 439000, 51840000, 3110400000, 186624000000, 11197440000000, 67184640000000, etc.
Addition and multiplication become interesting when changing bases:
59 + 1 = 1; 6 x 10 = 1,
Most fascinating is division however in which we get equations like:
4/2 = 30, with the fractional "/60" understood.
These are mathematical cryptograms in which letters are substituted for digits. TWO + TWO = FOUR could therefore mean many other things:
In base 10 we have seven possible answers:
734 765 836 846 867 928 938
+734 +765 +836 +846 +867 +928 +938
1468 1530 1672 1692 1734 1856 1876
which could just as validly be other words than "four" BOAS, BOAR, BODY, BOER, BOGS, BOGY, BOIL, BOLE, BOLA, BOLD, BONS, BONY, BONA, BOND, BONE, BONG, COAL, COAX, COBS, CODE, CODA, COGS, COIF, COIL, COIN, COKE, COLA, COLD, COMA, COMB, COME, CONE, CONY, CONK, etc.
The digital root is the end product of "casting out nines" or repeatedly summing the digits of a number. 2 + 2 which is 4 is also the digital root of:
13, 22, 31, 40, 103, 112, 121, 130, 202, 211, 220, 301, 400, 1003, 1012, 1021, 1102, 1111, 1201, 1210, 1300, ...
Ethicalculus is a subdiscipline of jootsy calculus dealing with the hexadecimal pseudowords* formed by the alphanumeric characters  0 1 5 9 a b c d e f, where a (base 16) = 10 (base 10),
B {BASE 16} = 11{BASE 10},
C {BASE 16} = 12 {BASE 10},
D {BASE 16} = 13 {BASE 10},
E {BASE 16} = 14 [BASE 10},
F {BASE 16} = 15 [BASE 10}.
100% 900d (base 16) = 36877 (base 10)
100% bad (base 16) = 2989 (base 10)
and countless other alphanumeric calculations using the basic relationship for pseudowords between good and bad, better numbers (above 900d) and worse numbers (below BAD), many of which are four letters:
abe = 92.004% bad
age = 90.933% bad
bad cubed = 637b00e5d = 26,704,088,669 (base 10)
bad squared = 8852e9 = 8,934,121 (base 10)
dad = 1.511% 9ood + 98.489% BAD
do9 = 1.027% 9ood + 98.973% BAD
e90 = 2.181% 9ood + 97.819% BAD
fib = 2.591% 9ood + 97.409% BAD
foe = 2.553% 9ood + 97.447% BAD
900d + BAD = 9bba = 39,866 (base 10)
900d  BAD = 8460 = 33,888 (base 10)
900d x BAD = 691e7c9 = 110,225,353 (base 10)
900D + 900D = 1201a = 73,754 (base 10)
9ood cubed = 2a39c581d395 = 50,149,516,458,133 (base 10)
9OOD squared = 510ea0a9 = 1,359,913,129 (base 10)
half bad = 5d6.8 = 1494.5 (base 10)
*different values would, of course, be given for ethicalculus based on the less familiar hexatrigintal or septemdecimal systems, where GOOD = 21853 and 149125, BAD = 509 and 1489 respectively.
Square roots and cube roots are not the only roots any more than base ten is the only number system. The other polygonal roots just are not as well known. The triangular root, for example, is the length of the side of an equilateral triangle formed by successive gnomons (as in the additional series of linerally decreasing pile of "bricks"). Some of which are square roots of other numbers.
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2 + 2 =
the triangular root of 10
the dodecagonal root of 64
the 18gonal root of 100
. . .
Honest calculations
are, like the honest number four, honest in having the same letter count as the meaning of the expression.
HONEST ADDITION
one plus twelve = 1 + 12
seven plus seven = 7 + 7
two plus nine = 2 + 9
two plus twelve = 2 + 12
HONEST DIVISION
twentyone divided by one = 21/1
twentythree divided by one = 23/1
HONEST MULTIPLICATION
one times fifteen = 1 x 15
one times seventeen = 1 x 17
one multiplied by twentythree = 1 x 23
HONEST SUBTRACTION
eighteen minus two = 18  2
sixteen minus one = 16  1
twenty minus five = 20  5
These are based on Lee Sallows' system of transforming words and phrases into numbers via base 27, with A through Z evaluated at 1 through 26 and the space as 0, so that:
two = 20(729) + 23(27) + 15 = 15216 (base 10)
two + two = 30,432 (base 10) = antc
two plus two = 20(5559060566555523) + 23(205891132094649) + 15(7625597484987) + 16(10460353203) + 12(387420489) + 21(14348907) + 19(531441) + 20(729) + 23(27) + 15 = 116031263657698329 (base 10)
In this base 36 system A = 10, B = 11, ..., Z = 35 so that we have:
TWO + TWO = 236G (2776 in base 10)
(different from both short and long division, even giving different answers for same expression)
4/2 = I, V (dividing right and left Roman numerals),
IV (dividing Roman numeral top and bottom) = {1, 4, 5}
6/2 = V, I, VI = {1, 5, 6}
7/3 = V, I, VII = {1, 5, 7}
8/2 = VI, II, VIII, 3 (Arabic numeral divided right and left),
0 (divided top and bottom) = {2, 6, 8}
16/64 = 1
19/95 = 1
26/65 = 2
49/98 = 4
64/16 =
65/26 =
A wordnum is the sum of the letter values in a word, as in SEPTEMVIRGINTINARIES. or base 27,
TWO + TWO = 2O + 2T + 2W = 58

