"Live long and prosper." (Deuteronomy 4:40)
Anakana <Tai nasha no karosha.> [Tÿ na-ša no ka-rå-ša].
Iyi-Golik <Mene sakkhet ur-seveh.> [Me-ne sak-ket û-se-ve].
Nojokan <Anhrahwhahty mywhyr.> [AN-rå-%å-tÿ mÿ-%ÿr].
updated 8179 Nhrut 11
Infinite Diversity in Infinite Combinations Institute
"The triangle and the circle . . . different shapes, materials, textures . . . represent any two diverse things which come together . . ." (Mr. Spock)
". . . in the infinite diversity of life . . ." (Ambassador Miranda Jones)
". . . and in the ways our differences can combine to create new truth and beauty." (Mr. Spock)
"Creatures have what is called potential infinity inasmuch as there is no fixed limit to the possibility of succession and variation in them." (Thomas Aquinas, Summa Q7)
"Now, truly, a multiplicity of holy things ... obviously in no way opposes the unity of the Catholic Church; rather, indeed, such diversity greatly enhances the dignity of the Church itself." (Pius IX, Amantissimus)
Department of Vulcan Studies
Even those new to the IDIC Institute may still be familiar with the simplified orthography developed by the Vulcan Academy Language Department (VALD) for Modern Vulcan and its High Vulcan borrowings. This however will not be of much use with nonstandard dialects and ancient languages. In order to begin to better represent Surakian and pre-Surakian writings, especially for the growing number of offworlders, we have developed our own system, yet another combination of diversities. The following polyglot orthography and horizontal scripting are admittedly compromises. Hopefully however our system will make comparative studies easier, or at least more interesting.
The languages of the borrowings and cognates of Middle Vulcan (or Nojokan) are many, though not nearly the more than 100 dialects referred to by Bill Richmond and Chris Pinette in "The Vulcan Language Guide". We will limit ourselves to "just" two dozen:
Anakana (A, aka Yakan), Ba-Golik (B, aka Old Golik), Duane Vulcan (D), Early Yakan (E*), FthinraKathi (F), Gælack (G), High Vulcan (H, aka Senura), Iyi-Golik (I, aka Modern Golic), Jlan (J), K'thauluvi (K), LoJjlan (L), Middle Zvelebil (M), Nojokan (N, aka Middle Vulcan), Os-Pid (O*, aka Old High Vulcan or Yeht-Golik, True Vulcan), proto-Zvelebil (P, aka Vulcanian ), Rihanha (R), Suluhura (S), Tÿyakana (T*, aka Old Vulcan), Upper Gælack (U), Velprâla (V ), Wolterink (W), Xÿck (X), Yazyk Vulkana (Y), Zvelebil (Z). We leave the unnamed, hypothetical intermediary languages, C*, and Q*, for students of Advanced Vulcan. Hopefully our orthography will equally offend speakers of every language and dialect.
| | | | |
O* P Q* R S
| | | |
---------------------- -------------- | -----
| | | | | | | | |
| | B | C* | | D E
| | | | | | | |
| | ------ | ----------- | | |
| | | | | | | | | | |
F G H I | J K L M N |
| | | | |
| ------ ------ | |
| | | | | | |
U V W X Y Z A
' [V ' ulef-peckaja] Bb as in "Borg"
Aa [G ae, N o, V a] as in "tax" Cc [T* ts] as in "tse tse"
À à [V ak] as in "Surak" Cc [N, P, V ch] as in "Chalnoth"
@ @ [V at] as in "cat" D d as in "Devidian"
Ä ä [V 'a] as in "at" Ff as in "Ferengi"
Ã ã [V an] as in "Human" Gg as in "Gorn"
A a [V ei] as in "veil" Hh as in "Human"
Â â [V ar] as in "Argelian" Jj [L, N jj, P dzh] as in "voyager"
Å å [N ah, V oh] as in "soul" Kk as in "Klingon"
Ee [N, G eh] as in "website" Kk [A x, N kh-, -ck, P kh] as in "Spock"
Ee [P ee] as in "green" L l as in "logic"
Ë ë [V 'eh] as in "ebb" Mm as in "man"
È è [V ek] as in "Savek" Nn as in "man"
PK [I en, N nn] as in "nnatural" NN [N (n)nh, P (e)ng] as in "Klingon"
Rr [T* 'r, V er] as in "Earthling" Ñ ñ [N nj, P ny, ni] as in "mañana"
I i [V ih] as in "pit" P p as in "pit"
Ï ï [V 'i] as it "it" F f [N ph] as in "pfumpf"
Î î [N rr, P ^, T* r, V ir] as in "sir" Q q [ N kw, V kr] as in "Qo'nos"
Ì ì [V ik] as in "Saavik" R r as in "Carrera"
Ll [I el, N ll] as in "ellogical" R r [B rr, N rh, I R, V hr] as in "fuair"
Mm [I em, N mm] as in "emmaterial" S s as in "Surak"
Oo [G ah, I aa, N o, V ah] as in "body" Š š [N, V sh] as in "Sheliak"
Ö ö [G 'ah, I 'aa, V ' ] as in "odd" T t as in "trek"
Ô ô [V or] as in "or" Qq [G, I, N th] as in "Earth"
Õ õ [V on] as in "Klingon" V v as in "voyager"
Ò ò [V ok] as in "Tuvok" W w as in "Wolf 359"
Ó ó [N ock, V okh] as in "Spock" % % [N wh, V wHl, P w~l, T* welle]
Uu [A uh] as in "fuss" X x [I ks] as in "sphinx"
Ü ü [V 'u] as in "us" Y y [N j, P y, V i-] as in "you"
Û û [V ur] as in "Surak" Z z [A x] as in "zoology"
Ú ú [V oo] as in "xoology" @ ` [N, P zh] as in "voyageur"
ww [N ow, T* w, V au] as in "ow" ' [N y, ulef-peckaja]
Ÿ ÿ [T* ÿ, N, V y, Y ai] as in "aisle"
The role of demonstrative pronouns is further extended by six prefixes specifying visibility, invisibility, accessibility and inaccessibility:
observed i- a-
unobserved e- u-
unobservable ÿ* o-
* NOTE: The ÿ- prefix can refer only to something at once both near and distant, someone near in mind, as in the katra-bonded or a reader and author, and yet distant in body -- or the disembodied katra or the bodiless, omnipresent yet transcendent One, a feature lost in proto-Zvelebil.
SINGULAR 1st 2nd 3rd persons singular
I you he she not-he-or-she he-or-she
here-seen iw- i%- in- i-
not-here-seen aq- as- aw- a%- ã- a-
here-unseen eq- es- ew- e%- K- e-
not-here-unseen uq-us-uw- u%-un- u-
here-unseeable ÿq- ÿs-ÿw-ÿ%- ÿn- ÿ-
not-here-unseeable oq-os- w- o%- õ- o-
*NOTE: A default prefixless usage is presumed for first and second person here-observed. The i|- and is- prefixes could be used for clarification when, for example, the speaker's verbal and telepathic communications for some reason do not agree.
Iyi-Golik tends to not use pronouns once the relationships between the subject(s) and object(s) are established. Ba-Golik had several:
SINGULAR 1st 2nd 3rd persons singular
I you he she (s)he or not-(s)he
nashveh du saveh koveh ishveh
PLURAL etek dular au
In Anakana lower integral numbers are indicated by the -na suffix: 1 = ana, 2 = nina, 3 =shina, 4 = wana, 5 = shana, 6 = rana, 7 = nena, 8 = lona, 9 = xina, 10 = kuna. Higher ones are compounded with ku- = G(0, 10, x), -ku = G(1, 10, x), -rai = G(1, 100, x), -sai = G(1, 1000, x) up to saisai = G(1, 1000000, x).
In Golik 1 = wuhkuh, 2 = dahkuh, 3 = rehkuh, 4 = kehkuh, 5 = kaukuh, 6 = sheh-kuh, 7 = stehkuh, 8 = ohkuh, 9 = naukuh, 10 = lehkuh. Above 10, compounds of at most three syllables are made combining the extracted roots and leh- = G(0, 10, x), -l(eh) = G(1, 10, x), -t(eh) = G(1, 100, x) to -zhoh = G(1, 1000000, x) up to zhoh-zhoh-zhoh = G(1, G(2, 18, 10), x). The ordinals are indicated by substituting -'rak for -kuh (or -ehkuh or -eh or -oh) up to zhohzhoht'rak = G(2, 14, 10)th. Adjectival forms end in -(y)ik as in zhohzhohtik zhohzhohzhoh = G(2, 32, 10).
Velprâla uses a biquintal numbering system, based on fives yet with special recognition of doubles as well. For digits above zero ï : 1.0 = ri, and below, 0.1 = î [derived from the hypothetical ancestral language Tÿyakana's ir]. The sequence continues with vowel changes: 2 = ro, 3 = ra, 4 = re, 5 = ru, and for those below zero: 2 = ô, 3 = â, 4 = œ, 5 = û (or*, ar*, er*, ur*). In a proper base 5 number system the sequence would end with "10", riï*. Note that this system "improperly" uses placeholders larger than the base, akin to saying "a dozen tens" rather than "ten dozens" and implying the description of complex groupings and subgroupings. Although it retains the the concept of extending the series by transforming the -r- to -t- yielding -ti- and -it- = 6, -to- and -ot- = 7, -ta- and -@- = 8, -te- and -et- = 9, -tu- and -ut- = 10, it is essentially a decimal system, but with tu (base 10) replacing the "logical" riï* (base 5). That of Nojokan (and less so Q*) was more elaborate, but quite handy in describing odds (such as those involving dice marked 0 [i] to 5 [ru], as in the popular game Yîru) or simple arithmetical equations which would be written simply: "2 + 2 = 4" being "rha" [from rara*], at its extreme a base 25 number system. Counting on the fingers was done by noting unit's placeholder with one hand and five's placeholder with the other.
10 = ru, 01 = jî [yir*]
20 = tu, 11 = ri [r'i*], 02 = it [yit*]
30 = roi, 21 = râi [rari*], 12 = rîa [rira*], 03 = jor [yor*]
40 = rei, 31 = rôi [rori*], 22 = ra [r'a*], 13 = rîo [riro*], 04 = jê [yer*]
50 = rwi [rui*], 41 = rêi [reri*], 32 = rôa [rora*] 23 = râo [raro*], 14 = rîe [rire*], 05 = jû [yur*]
110 = tji [tii*], 51 = rûi [ruri*], 42 = rêa [rera*], 33 = ro [r'o*], 24 rôe = [rore*], 15 = rîu [riru*]
120 = ty, 52 = rûa [rura*], 43 = rêo [rero*], 34 = rore, 25 = râu [raru*]
130 = toi, 53 = rûo [ruro*], 44 = rhe [r'e*], 35 = roru
140 = tei, 54 = rûe [rure*], 45 = rêu, [reru*],
200 = twi [tui*], 55 = ru [r'u*],
010 = jit [yit*], 011 = j@ [yat*], 012 = jot [yot*], 013 = jet [yet*], 014 = jut [yut*]
210 to 300 = si to swi, 310 to 400 = ci to cwi, 410 to 500 = chi to chwi;
-00 = -ji, -000 = -jji, -0000 = -jhi [y'i*], -00000 = -jhij [y'iy*], -000000 = -jjhi [j'i*], -0000000 = -jjhij [j'iy*], -00000000 = -jjhijj [j'ij*], -000000000 = -jjhijh, -0000000000 = jjhijjh and so on:
j- jj- jh- jh-j jjh- jjh-j jjh-jj
-i- G(2, 2, 5) G(2, 3, 5) G(2, 4, 5) G(2, 5, 5) G(2, 6, 5) G(2, 7, 5) G(2, 8, 5)
-o- G(2, 9, 5) G(2, 10, 5) G(2, 11, 5) G(2, 12, 5) G(2, 13, 5) G(2, 14, 5) G(2, 15, 5)
-a- G(2, 16, 5) G(2, 17, 5) G(2, 18, 5) G(2, 19, 5) G(2, 20, 5) G(2, 21, 5) G(2, 22, 5)
-e- G(2, 23, 5) G(2, 24, 5) G(2, 25, 5) G(2, 26, 5) G(2, 27, 5) G(2, 28, 5) G(2, 29, 5)
-u- G(2, 30, 5) G(2, 31, 5) G(2, 32, 5) G(2, 33, 5) G(2, 34, 5) G(2, 25, 5) G(2, 36, 5)
[chwijjhujj, tshuij'uj*] = 500 (base 5)G(2, 36, 5) = G(2, 38, 5), [-as] = doubles the base to ten, -es quintuples it to 50, and [-us] doubles it again to 100, thus [chwijjhujjus, tshuij'ujus*] = 500(base 100)G(2, 36, 100) = 5G(2, 75, 10).
Ordinals are formed by adding -rk: first = [rirk], second = [rark], millionth = [jjhirk]
Larger indefinite groupings and subgroupings can also be described similarly using the below-one digit names as infixes:
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
-ir- -or- -ar- -er- -ur- -it- -ot- -at- -et- -ut-
In Nojokan therefore we have: we-2-&-not-you-1 [htrja-], we-3-&-not-you-1[htrjo-], we-2-&-not-you-2 [htrâa-], etc., to we-50%-&-not-you-50% [htûÛ-]. With double honorifics that makes 8(8(6(6 + 10))) = 6144 possible words specifying "we"! (It is not surprizing then that the language became extinct.) In Tÿyakan the number of demonstrative pronouns was only 30 and all that remains in Velprâla is the remnant and corrupted plural form:
plural you-5+ we-and-not-you you-5+ they-5+ (m) they-5+ (f) they-5+
th'e's- th'e- se- iwe- i%e- ine-
In Ba-Golik a plural form with -lar was used, but only rarely for emphasis; in Iyi-Golik
du = you; t'du = your; vu = yourself..
CONJUNCTIONS AND OTHER LOGICAL AND MATHEMATICAL OPERATORS
Conjunctions and other logical operations are expressed, as in Nojokan, as prefixes, or in the case of Velprâla, usually as suffix pairs.
a- [N o-] = if the first therefore the second of ___ and ____, implying the truth of the original premise;
ab- [N ob-, G abru] ] division indicator, ____ divided by ___
a`-[N ozh-, V -azh ... -azh] = either the first or the second of ___ and ____;
ba- [N bo-] = conquest indicator, _____ conquered by ______ , to indicate surreal numbers
eN- [N nnh-] = the sum of the second with itself the first number of times of ___ and ___; the product of the first and the second of ___ and ___
eNro- [N nnhro-] = the sum of the third with itself the second number of times, with itself the first number of times of ___, ___ and ___; the product of the first, second and third of ___, ___ and ___
myaN- [N mjanh-] = both the first and the second of ___ and ___ are indeterminate, neither true nor not true
mi/y- [N mi/mj-] = ___ is indeterminate or approximate, neither true nor not true
na- [N no-] = if the first then the second of ___ and ___, without implying the truth of the original premise;
ña`- [N njozh-, V nirsh + ... -azh nirsh + ... -azh or -niazh ... -niazh] = neither the first nor the second of ___ and ___;
ny- [A -nai, N ni- or ñ-, V ni + ... + a or nirsh + ... uks +] = not ___ or not the first but the second of ___ and ___;
ñoñ- [N njanj/i-] = the resultant of the subtraction of the first from the second of ___ and ___;
oN- [N anh-, V-ong ... -ong] = both the first and the second of ____ and ____; the sum of the first and the second of ___ and ___;
oNo- [N anho-] = either both or either of ___ and ____ ;
oNro- [N anhro-] = the first and second and the third of ___, ___ and ___; the sum of the first, second and the third of ___, ___ and ___
qa- [A ta +, N q(a)-, V qa + ... qa +] = ?, interrogatory
qÿ- [N kwi-] = !, rhetorical interrogatory, one without response expected
qÿo- [N kwa-] = ?!, metaphysical interrogatory, one without response possible
stâ- [N sto-, G starun] = ", naming indicator, ____ "______"
uN- [N unh-] = the product of the second with itself the first number of times of ___ and ___; the second to the first number's power of ___ and ____
wuN-[N wunh-] = the second to it's own power the first number of times of ___ and ___; the second tetrated the first number of times of ___ and ___
All and any of these operators can be combined together and can be modified by numerical infixes to indicate complex, probabilistic or fuzzy logic:
eNrowuNrotu [nnhrowunhratu] = G(2, 2, G(3, 3, 10)) = googolplex,
kašiqot iwtelv [Koshithat iwtllv] = He is reading my mind.
kašiqot stoiwtelv [Koshithat stoiwtllv] = He is reading <He is reading my mind.>,
kašiqot sritwtelv [Koshithat sritoiwtllv] = He is reading <He is reading. <He is reading my mind.>>
o`rûa- [ozhrura-] = "5:2 odds (probabilities 71.4% and 28.6% respectively) for the first over the second of ___ and ____" or
o`tî- [ozhtir-] = "probability 71% for ___".
wuNroÿo [wunhrojo] = G(2, 10, G(3, 2, 10)) = googolplex-to-the-fifth,
wuNroÿho [wunhjho] = G(3, 2, G(2, 10, 10))
The words corresponding to demonstrative pronouns in most Vulcan languages can be expressed with or without honorifics just as can other parts of speech. Anakana and Golik have only one honorific, respectively [la-] and [o-]. Another family's is based on two: [kan-] indicating formality or respect and on [kam-] familiarity or affection. A characteristic feature of many Vulcan languages is intensive replication of syllables and vowels in verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs which in Nojokan can generate any number of different degrees of intensification, albeit with increasing word length:
kã- (kan-*) consonant-vowel vowel vowel-(consonant)
khan- (kakan-*) kaã- (kaan-*) kãã- (kanan-*)
cons. vowel khakã- (kakakan-*) khaã- (kakaan-*) khanã- (kakanan-*)
vowel khaã- (kakaan-*) kahan- (kaaan-*) kaãã- (kaanan-)
vow. cons. khanã- (kakanan-*) kaãã- (kaanan-) kanhan- (kananan-*)
vowels kaakaã- (kaakaan-*) kahaã- (kaaaan-) kaãaã- (kaanaan-*)
NOTE: Some replication sequences yield identical results, in this example: khanã- and khaã- and kaanan-. Even so we have here 1 degree of intensification in 1 syllable, 8 in 2 or less, 10 in 3 or less and 12 in 4 or less. The 2-syllable intensification sequence would run from kahkã- to kaã- to khaã- to kãã- to khanã- to kahan- to kanhan-, enough for most circumstances.
The the various conjugations are expressed by successive prefixations, as before in Nojokan, or as suffixes in proto-Zvelebil.
1 2 3 4 5 6 ... 10
ablative (from) he- råe- rahe- rehe- ruhe- tihe- ... tuhe-
associative (with)* ko- råko- rako- reko- ruko- tiko- ... tuko-
dative (to) ha- råha- raha- reha- ruha- tiha- ... tuha-
genitive (of) @- rå@- ra@- re@- rw@- tj@- ... tw@-
gerundive (-ing) yo- råyo- rayo- reyo- rwyo- tjyo- ... twyo-
gutteral (bleeping!)** ricqo- råcqo- racqo- recqo- rucqo- ticqo- ... tucqo-
locative (at) ti- råti- rati- reti- ruti- thi- ... tuti-
objective hi- råhi- rohi- rehi- ruhi- tihi- ... tuhi-
reflexive (-self) ya- råya- roya- reya- rwya- tjya- ... twya-
vocative (hey!) ä- råä- raä- reä- rwä- tjä- ... twä-
NOTE: rehe- is from Q* rere-*, rw@- from ruat-*, ty@- from tyat-*, tw@ from tuat-*, rwyo- from ruyo-*, tjya- from tiya-*, twyo- from tuyo-*, thi- from titi-*, rwya- from ruya-*, tjya- from tiya-*, twya- from tuya-*, rwä- from ru'a-*, tjä- from ti'a*, twä- from tu'a-*
* Ba-Golik had a similar pseudo-adjectival form as in k'avon (hungry, literally "with hunger") and k'mag (thirsty, literally "with thirst").
**Tÿyakana also had an invective prefix, khri- (or khra-), since Reformation an indication of insanity.
In Velprâla glottalized suffixes are used on both nouns and their modifiers:
ablative (from) -'he -'he
dative (to) -'ha -'ha
genitive (of) -'at -'at
gerundive (-ing) -'yo -'yo
locative (at) -'ti -'ti
objective -'hi -'hi
reflexive (-self) -'ya -'ya
vocative (hey!) -'a -'a
Golik and Vulcanian usually form new compounds from older root words by joining them with the pakh (represented in transcription with a hyphen) though limited to no more than three roots [pon-far] ; transcribed Nojokan on the other hand uses consonant lengthening with no root joining limit: [pannpforh] = mating time; Anakana [po-nu fa-ru] and Ba-Golik use spaces between the roots [pon farr]. These can sometimes be changed for emphasis.
In Anakana -sha is added to a noun form into a verb. In Ba-Golik (1) -tor is added to a noun (or it's extracted root) to form a verb. (ha'hiv "life", ha'tor "live"; shen "rise", shen-tor), (2) -n is subtracted to form a verb (aitlun "desire", aitlu; lashan "arrival", lasha; psthan "search", pstha; shan "rage", resha), (3) or (a)n is subtracted and -tor added (dan "rotation",da-tor; glan "sight", gla-tor; shen "ascent", she-tor; tevan "descent", tav-tor; zahvan "taste" tav-tor), or they are irregular (4a) esta "touch", estuhl; fosha "shedding", foshuhl; ip-sui "hiding", ip-sut; (4b) klachek "lock", klacha; (4c) sal "scream", salur; (4d) she "scream" shei; (4e) thanah "adoption", thanai; (4f) vlu "howl", vlun "howling", vlur; (4g) yoka "eating", yokul.
In Iyi-Golik this is simplified to: (1) "-tor" transforms a noun (or variant) form into a verb (saul "shout", saul-tor, talal "find", tal-tor) or (2) "-aya" is subtracted and "-u" added (shaya "break", shau), thus exterminating homonymous noun-verb pairs.
In Nojokan verbs roots of the form CV(C)+ are the same as the noun forms, but can change form with the inclusion of consonantal infixes after the first (or reduplicated) vowel, the addition of an -i or -j suffix or the transformation of an already reduplicated vowel into an -i-.
negation -i/j-, -i/j
indeterminancy -ij-, -ij
long before shortly before synchronous shortly after long after
active -s- -z- -t- -d
passive -r- -zh- -nh- -rh- -l-
completed -f- -p- -x- -`- -v-
imperative -b- -th- -k- -j- -wh-
intentional -kw- -c- -sh- -nj- -kh-
permitted -g- -n- -m- -jj- -w-
hamÿr [hamyr] = to live
[ÿomÿr] = living
[Imÿmÿr] = You, the one observed here, are living a long life.
[Imÿmÿri] = You, the one observed here, are not living a long life.
[Imÿswÿr] = You, the one observed, have lived a long life.
[Imÿtwÿr] = You, the one observed here, will live a long life.
They can be used in combination as well, without reduplicated vowels, allowing for a little Middle Vulcan ambiguity and word play:
[Imÿtsÿr] = You, the one observed here, will have lived a long, long life. (NOTE: not the same as the homonymous [Imÿcÿri] = You, the one observed here, would have lived a long life.)
[Imÿksÿr] = Live now, you, the one observed here, as you did long ago. (NOTE: not the same as the homonymous [Imÿxÿr] = You, the one observed here, lived until now.)
[Imÿstÿr] = You, the one observed here, have yet to live a long life.
In Anakana this simplifies to three suffixes: -shi (past), -sha (present), -sho (future).
It's nearly as simple with in the Golik family:
past present future
Ba-Golik vesht + fa-wak +
Iyi-Golik vesht + dungi +
-au verbs -al dungi-
-a-tor verbs -al
Indicating the predicate by P and its modifiers by p, the subject by S and its by s and the Object by O and its by o and the individual languages' interword connectors, we can abbreviate the preferred word orders thus:
In Anakana it is "s S ra o O ro p P", in Golik "P s'S s o'O o p.", in Nojokan "oO sS pP", in Velprâla "p P'hi s S o O".
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